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    الجمعية الاقليمية للكشافة الجوية باسوان على الفيس بوك

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    مؤمن كمال

    عدد المساهمات : 109
    تاريخ التسجيل : 02/01/2010
    العمر : 28
    الموقع : الجمعية الاقليمية للكشافة الجوية باسوان على الفيس بوك
    03012010

    الجمعية الاقليمية للكشافة الجوية باسوان على الفيس بوك

    مُساهمة من طرف مؤمن كمال

    Background
    The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure
    Geography
    Controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees.
    Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
    Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E
    Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km
    land: 995,450 sq km
    water: 6,000 sq km
    Size comparison: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
    Land Boundaries: total: 2,665 km
    border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
    Coastline: 2,450 km
    Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
    Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
    highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
    Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
    Land use: arable land: 2.92%
    permanent crops: 0.5%
    other: 96.58% (2005)
    Irrigated land: 34,220 sq km (2003)
    Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms
    Current Environment Issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
    International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    ^Back to Top
    People
    Population: 81,713,520 (July 2008 est.)
    Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.8% (male 13,292,961/female 12,690,711)
    15-64 years: 63.5% (male 26,257,440/female 25,627,390)
    65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,636,560/female 2,208,455) (2008 est.)
    Median age: total: 24.5 years
    male: 24.1 years
    female: 24.9 years (2008 est.)
    Population growth rate: 1.682% (2008 est.)
    Birth rate: 22.12 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Death rate: 5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Net migration rate: -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
    Infant mortality rate: total: 28.36 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 30.06 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 26.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.85 years
    male: 69.3 years
    female: 74.52 years (2008 est.)
    Total fertility rate: 2.72 children born/woman (2008 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (2001 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths: 700 (2003 est.)
    Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s)
    adjective: Egyptian
    Ethnic groups: Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)
    Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%
    Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
    Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 71.4%
    male: 83%
    female: 59.4% (2005 est.)
    ^Back to Top
    Government
    Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
    conventional short form: Egypt
    local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
    local short form: Misr
    former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
    Government type: republic
    Capital: name: Cairo
    geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends last Thursday in September
    Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah (El Beheira), Al Fayyum (El Faiyum), Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah (El Monofia), Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf (Beni Suef), Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh (Western Desert), Qina (Qena), Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj (Sohag)
    Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)
    National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
    Constitution: 11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980, 25 May 2005, and 26 March 2007
    Legal system: based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
    head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed Mohamed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People's Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 September 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 September 2005; next election scheduled for 2011
    election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
    Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (Shura Council) that traditionally functions only in a consultative role but 2007 constitutional amendments could grant the Council new powers (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members)
    elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 7 and 20 November, 1 December 2005;(next to be held November-December 2010); Advisory Council - last held June 2007 (next to be held May-June 2010)
    election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 311, NWP 6, Tagammu 2, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 112 (12 seats to be determined by rerun elections, 10 seats appointed by President); Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 84, Tagammu 1, independents 3
    Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court
    Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Moussa Mustafa MOUSSA]
    note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties with representation in elected bodies are listed
    Political pressure groups and leaders: Muslim Brotherhood (technically illegal)
    note: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK has alternated between tolerating limited political activity by the Brotherhood (its members, who ran as independents, hold 88 seats in the People's Assembly)and blocking its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; only trade unions and professional associations affiliated with the government are officially sanctioned; Internet social networking groups and bloggers
    International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, COMESA, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sameh Hassan SHOUKRY
    chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Margaret SCOBEY
    embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo
    mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
    telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
    FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
    ^Back to Top
    Economy
    Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but has opened up considerably under former President Anwar EL-SADAT and current President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Cairo has aggressively pursued economic reforms to encourage inflows of foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth. In 2005, Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF's government reduced personal and corporate tax rates, reduced energy subsidies, and privatized several enterprises. The stock market boomed, and GDP grew about 7% each year since 2006. Despite these achievements, the government has failed to raise living standards for the average Egyptian, and has had to continue providing subsidies for basic necessities. The subsidies have contributed to a sizeable budget deficit - roughly 7% of GDP in 2007-08 - and represent a significant drain on the economy. Foreign direct investment has increased significantly in the past two years, but the NAZIF government will need to continue its aggressive pursuit of reforms in order to sustain the spike in investment and growth and begin to improve economic conditions for the broader population. Egypt's export sectors - particularly natural gas - have bright prospects.
    GDP (purchasing power parity): $452.5 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate): $158.3 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate: 7% (2008 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,500 (2008 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13.4%
    industry: 37.6%
    services: 48.9% (2008 est.)
    Labor force: 24.72 million (2008 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 32%
    industry: 17%
    services: 51% (2001 est.)
    Unemployment rate: 8.7% (2008 est.)
    Population below poverty line: 20% (2005 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.7%
    highest 10%: 29.5% (2000)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index: 34.4 (2001)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (2008 est.)
    Investment (gross fixed): 17% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budget: revenues: $40.46 billion
    expenditures: $51.38 billion (2008 est.)
    Public debt: 84.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
    Industrial production growth rate:
    Electricity - production: 109.1 billion kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - consumption: 96.2 billion kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - exports: 557 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Electricity - imports: 208 million kWh (2006 est.)
    Oil - production: 664,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - consumption: 652,700 bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - exports: 204,700 bbl/day (2005 est.)
    Oil - imports: 140,000 bbl/day (2005)
    Oil - proved reserves: 3.7 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
    Natural gas - production: 47.5 billion cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption: 31.8 billion cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - exports: 15.7 billion cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.656 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
    Current account balance: $1.483 billion (2008 est.)
    Exports: $33.36 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
    Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
    Exports - partners: US 9.7%, Italy 9.5%, Spain 7.6%, Syria 5.5%, Saudi Arabia 4.9%, UK 4.2% (2007)
    Imports: $56.43 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
    Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
    Imports - partners: US 11.7%, China 9.7%, Italy 6.4%, Germany 6.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.7%, Russia 4.3% (2007)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $36.91 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    Debt - external: $28.84 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $59.03 billion (2008 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $2.28 billion (2008 est.)
    Market value of publicly traded shares: $139.3 billion (31 December 2007)
    Currency (code): Egyptian pound (EGP)
    Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar - 5.4 (2008 est.), 5.67 (2007), 5.725 (2006), 5.78 (2005), 6.1962 (2004)
    Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
    ^Back to Top
    Communications
    Telephones in use: 11.229 million (2007)
    Cellular Phones in use: 30.065 million (2007)
    Telephone system: general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Telecom Egypt, the landline monopoly, has been increasing service availability and in 2007 fixed-line density stood at 14 per 100 persons; as of 2007 there were three mobile-cellular networks and service is expanding rapidly
    domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
    international: country code - 20; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2007)
    Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)
    Television broadcast stations: 98 (September 1995)
    Internet country code: .eg
    Internet hosts: 175,342 (2008)
    Internet users: 8.62 million (2007)
    ^Back to Top
    Transportation
    Airports: 88 (2007)
    Airports (paved runways): total: 72
    over 3,047 m: 15
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
    under 914 m: 5 (2007)
    Airports (unpaved runways): total: 16
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 7 (2007)
    Heliports: 3 (2007)
    Pipelines: condensate 483 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 6,466 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,518 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km (2007)
    Railways: total: 5,063 km
    standard gauge: 5,063 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2006)
    Roadways: total: 92,370 km
    paved: 74,820 km
    unpaved: 17,550 km (2004)
    Waterways: 3,500 km
    note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2007)
    Merchant marine: total: 67
    by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 28, container 2, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 9
    foreign-owned: 10 (Denmark 1, Greece 8, Lebanon 1)
    registered in other countries: 58 (Cambodia 13, Georgia 12, Honduras 3, North Korea 1, Malta 1, Moldova 1, Panama 17, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 3, Togo 1) (2008)
    Ports and terminals: Ayn Sukhnah, Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Sidi Kurayr, Suez
    ^Back to Top
    Military
    Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
    Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2008)
    Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 21,247,777
    females age 16-49: 20,406,408 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 18,153,158
    females age 16-49: 17,405,837 (2008 est.)
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